Various mining types are used for moving clay from the clay
yard to transporting it to the preparation area.

¤ıElevator scrapers
¤ıConveyor system
The equipment required for preparation of the clay is
dependant on the type of clay being mined in a particular area.

¤ıStone separating mill
¤ıPrimary roll crusher
¤ıFine roll crusher
¤ıHigh speed mill
There are control of raw materials conditions.

¤ıFilter pug mill
Perfectly mixed raw material is pressed in the vacuum chamber
to expel air within the mix, and kneaded/shaped to produce
clay bricks, yellow bricks, paving blocks in various shapes and
This is the determining process that dictates product's
strength, quality, and surface finish.

¤ıDe-Airing Extrusion
After kneading/shaping, shaped mix is cut in accordance with
required product measurements.
This is therefore a crucial process that determines product's
size/shape and flexibility.
The common methods of cutting the bricks to size are

¤ıSlug Cutter
¤ıAutomatic multi cutter
¤ıPush Through Cutter

The reel cutter would cut the column into brick units as the column leaves the extruder.
The push through cutter would first cut a slug the length of the cutter, which would be sent into the cutter by conveyor.
The push through would then push the column through the cutter wires and return ready for the next column.
The cut bricks in the meantime would be removed by another conveyor to the offset belt.
The handling green brick after cutting machine that move
to next section for drying and firing are

¤ıAutomatic loading machine
¤ıAutomatic unloading machine
¤ıSetting machine
¤ıManual setting
Cut pieces are dried by automatically controlled hot and cold air-cooling system to remove moisture.
To maintain optimum level of drying, all the sensitive working elements such as drying chamber temperature, rotation of hot
and cold air, air blowing pressure and speed, etc are controlled automatically that Drying temperature average 75~85¡ÆC,
drying time about 72 hours and moisture retention are 1.5~3% Continuous tunnel dryers, would run in tandem with a tunnel kiln.
The wet bricks would be packed onto kiln cars which would automatically move through a tunnel dryer utilizing heat from the cooling zone of the tunnel kiln before actually moving into the kiln for firing.

The most commonly used methods of firing are:
¤ıTransverse Arch Kilns
¤ıContinuous Tunnel Kilns

Clamp Kilns date back to ancient times but are still widely used in Africa. In this case bricks are packed into a block formation with coal placed in specific areas to assist with firing.
This method depends on good weather very much .

Transverse Arch Kiln consists of a number of chambers on either side of a building. The dry bricks are placed in the chambers which are then bricked up.
The fire is pulled through the chamber using an exhaust.

Fan. Coal is fed through burners on top of the chambers, and these are moved with the fire. Hot air from the rear of the fire is circulated through the dryer.

The tunnel Kiln is a continuous operation in that the wet bricks packed on the kiln cars move from the dryer into the kiln.
The fire remains in one place and the cars move through the fire, increasing in temperature as they move until they get to the cooling zone where the hot air is removed and circulated to the dryer.

Sorting the fired product into various grades is in most cases done by hand.
The more modern plants would use as system to packs are automatically strapped into blades and then wrapped and prepared for stacking.

¤ıManual sorting and packing
¤ıAutomatic palletizing machine